You are here

Ustinov I.E., Arkhipova Yu.A., Pakhomov Yu.M., Fedorova A.V. Abdominal “bracing” and “hollowing” as factors of strengthening the muscles of the abdominal tension

Abdominal “bracing” and “hollowing” as factors of strengthening the muscles of the abdominal tension
Igor Evgenyevich Ustinov, the candidate of pedagogical sciences, senior lecturer,
Yuliya Aleksandrovna Arkhipova, the candidate of pedagogical sciences, senior lecturer,
Yury Mikhaylovich Pakhomov, the candidate of pedagogical sciences, senior lecturer,
Alina Valentinovna Fedorova, the candidate of pedagogical sciences, senior lecturer,
Saint-Petersburg State University of Economics

Annotation
The article presents the analyze of exercises based on the volitional activation of the abdominal muscles without motor activity: «abdominal bracing» and «abdominal hollowing». Electronic resources used are: «KoreanScience», «Scholar google», «PubMed», «Researchgate». Muscle biopotentials in electromyography, muscle thickness in ultrasound, and muscle elasticity in elastography were used to assess the immediate effects of exercise. In randomized clinical trials, positive effects were confirmed by the results of the control exercises, increased muscle area on MRI images, reduced pain and social maladjustment by questionnaire methods. The possibility of using «abdominal bracing» for complex activation of the abdominal muscles and «abdominal hollowing» for the selective activation of the transverse muscle against a background of low intra-abdominal pressure was established.
Keywords: abdominal bracing, abdominal hollowing.
 
References
  1. Tuktamyshev V.S., Solomatina N.V. (2013), “The influence of intra-abdominal pressure on the lumbar spine”, Fundamentalnue issledovaniya, Vol.8, pp. 77-81.
  2. Ustinov, I.E. (2017), “Load control in crunch exercise (revive of foreign electromyographic studies)”, Uchenye zapiski universiteta imeni P.F. Lesgafta, Vol.151, No 9, pp. 244-249.
  3. Shimizu I., Tateuchi H., Motomura Y., Morischita K., Masaki M. and Ichihaschi N. (2019), “Abdominal girth as an index of muscle tension during abdominal hollowing: Selecting the optimal training intensity for the transversus abdominis muscle”, J Biomech, No 89, pp. 72-77. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2019.04.018
  4. Chanthapetch P., Kanlayanaphotporn R., Gaogasigam C. and Chiradejnant A. (2009), “Abdominal muscle activity during abdominal hollowing in four starting positions” Man Ther, 14(6), pp. 642-646. doi: 10.1016/j.math.2008.12.009.
  5. Aboufazeli M. and Afshar-Mohaje N. (2018), “Within-day and between-day reliability of thickness measurements of abdominal muscles using ultrasound during abdominal hollowing and bracing maneuver”, l body mov ther, 22 (1), pp.122-128. doi: 10.116/j.jbmt.2017.03.006.
  6. Ackermann B.J., O’Dwyer N. and Halaki M. (2014), “The difference between standing and sitting in 3 different seat inclinations on abdominal muscle activity and chest and abdominal expansion in woodwind and brass musicians”, Frontiersin Psycholog, Volume 5, P. 1-9. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00913
  7. Bae, W. and Lee K. (2016), “Effect of the Breathing Methods in Accordance with Surfaces during Bridging Exercises”, J Korean Soc Phys Med., 11(2), pp.33-40. doi:10.13066/kspm.2016.11.2.33
  8. Bressel E., Dolny D.G. and Gibbons M. (2011), “Trunk muscle activity during exercises performed on land and in water”, Med Sci Sports Exerc., 43(10), pp. 1927-32. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e318219dae7.
  9. Brown Stephen H.M. and McGill Stuart M. (2010), “A comparison of ultrasound and electromyography measures of force and activation to examine the mechanics of abdominal wall contraction”, Clin Biomech, No 25 (2), pp.115–123. doi: 10.1016/j clinbiomech.2009.10.00
  10. Teyhen D.S., Rieger J.L., Westrick R.B., Miller A.C., Molloy J.M. and Childs J.D. (2008), “Changes in deep abdominal muscle thickness during common trunk-strengthening exercises using ultrasound imaging”, J Orthop Sports Phys Ther., 38(10), pp. 596-605. doi: 10.2519/jospt.2008.2897.
  11. Critchley D. (2002), “Instructing Pelvic Floor Contraction Facilitates Transversus Abdominis Thickness Increase During Low-Abdominal Hollowing”, Physiother Res Int, 7 (2), pp.65-75.
  12. Bjerkefors A., Ekblom M. M., Josefsson K. and Thorstensson A. (2010), “Deep and superficial abdominal muscle activation during trunk stabilization exercises with and without instruction to hollow”, Manual Therapy, 15, pp. 502-507 doi: 10.1016/j.math.2010.05.006
  13. Drysdale C.L., Earl J.E. and Hertel J. (2004), “Surface Electromyographic Activity of the Abdominal Muscles During Pelvic-Tilt and Abdominal Hollowing Exercises”, J Athl Train. Mar;39(1), pp.32-36.
  14. Hackett D.A. and Chow C.M. (2013), “The Valsalva maneuver: its effect on intra-abdominal pressure and safety issues during resistance exercise”, J Strength Cond Res., 27 (8), pp. 2338-2345. doi:10.1519/JSC0b013e31827de07d.
  15. Hwang Y., Kim J. and Park D. (2014), “The preferential contraction ratios of transversus abdominis on the variations of knee angles during abdominal drawing-in maneuver in wall support standing”, J Exerc Rehabil, 10(2), pp.100-105.
  16. Tayashiki K., Maeo S., Usui S., Miyamoto N. and Kanehisa H. (2016), “Effect of abdominal bracing training on strength and power of trunk and lower limb muscles”, European Journal of Applied Physiology, Volume 116, Issue 9, pp 1703–1713.
  17. Park S.H., Song M.Y., Park H.J., Bae H.Y. and Lim D.S. (2014), “Effect of different types of contractions in abdominal bracing on the asymmetry of left and right abdominal muscles”, J Phys Ther Sci, 26 (12), pp. 1843 - 1845. doi:10.1589/jpts.26.1843.
  18. OkuboY., Kaneoka K., Imai A., Shiina I., Tatsumura M., Izumi S. and Miyakawa S. (2010) “Electromyographic Analysis of Transversus Abdominis and Lumbar Multifidus Using Wire Electrodes During Lumbar Stabilization Exercises”, Journal of orthopaedic and sports physical therapy, Vol. 40. No 11, pp. 743-750.
  19. Tayashiki K., Takai Y., Maeo S. and Kanehisa H. (2016), “Intra-abdominal Pressure and Trunk Muscular Activities during Abdominal Bracing and Hollowing”, Int J Sports Med., 37(2), pp.134. doi: 10.1055/s-0035-1559771.
  20. Kim B.J. and Lee S.K. (2017), “Effects of three spinal stabilization techniques on activation and thickness of abdominal muscle”, J Exerc Rehabil., 13(2), pp. 206-209. doi: 10.12965/jer.1734900.450.
  21. Kim J.S., Seok C.H. and Jeon H.S. (2017), “Abdominal draw-in maneuver combined with simulated weight bearing increases transversus abdominis and internal oblique thickness”, Physiother Theory Pract., 33(12), pp. 954-958. doi: 10.1080/09593985.2017.1359866.
  22. Koh H.W., Cho S.H. and Kim C.Y. (2014), “Comparison of the Effects of Hollowing and Bracing Exercises on Cross-sectional Areas of Abdominal Muscles in Middle-aged Women”, J Phys Ther Sci., 26(2), pp. 295-299. doi: 10.1589/jpts.26.295.
  23. Lee Ho-jun and Kim Suhn-yeop (2015), “Comparison of the Effects of Abdominal Draw-In and Expansion Maneuvers on Trunk Stabilization in Patients with Low Back Pain and Lumbar Spine Instability”, Phys Ther Korea, 22(1), pp.37-48. doi.org/10.12674/ptk.2015.22.1.037.
  24. Psycharakis S.G., Coleman S.G.S., Linton L., Kaliarntas K. and Valentin S. (2019), “Muscle Activity During Aquatic and Land Exercises in People with and Without Low Back Pain”, Phys Ther., 99(3), pp. 297-310. doi: 10.1093/ptj/pzy150.
  25. Djordjevic O., Konstantinovic L., Miljkovic N. and Bijelic G. (2015), “Relationship Between Electromyographic Signal Amplitude and Thickness Change of the Trunk Muscles in Patients with and Without Low Back Pain”, Clin J Pain, Volume 31, No 10, pp. 893–902. doi:10.1097/AJP.0000000000000179.
  26. Ehsani F., Sahebi N., Shanbehzadeh S., Arab A.M. and ShahAli S. (2019), “Stabilization exercise affects function of transverse abdominis and pelvic floor muscles in women with postpartum lumbo-pelvic pain: a double-blinded randomized clinical trial study”, Int Urogynecol J. doi: 10.1007/s00192-019-03877-1.
  27. Stanton T. and Kawchuk G. (2008), “The effect of abdominal stabilization contractions on posteroanterior spinal stiffness”, Spine, Vol. 33 (N6), рp.694- 701. doi:10.1097/BRS.0b013e318166e034.
  28. Suehiro T., Ishida H., Kobara K., Fujita D., Osaka H. and Watanabe S. (2018), “Tape measure-based real-time feedback during the abdominal draw-in maneuver facilitates isolated transverse abdominal contraction”, J Phys Ther Sci., 30(8), pp. 1081-1085. doi: 10.1589/jpts.30.1081.
  29. Hirayama K., Akagi R., Moniwa Y., Okada J. and Takahashi H. (2017), “Transversus abdominis elasticity during various exercises: a shear wave ultrasound elastography study”, J Sports Phys Ther., 12(4), pp. 601-606.
  30. Maeo S., Takahashi T., Takai Y. and Kanehisa H. (2013), “Trunk Muscle Activities during Abdominal Bracing: Comparison among Muscles and Exercises”, J Sports Sci Med, No 12 (3), pp. 467-474.
  31. Imai A., Kaneoka K., Okubo Y., Shiina I., Tatsumura M., Izum S., and Shiraki H (2010), “Trunk Muscle Activity During Lumbar Stabilization Exercises on Both a Stable and Unstable Surface”, J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, 40, pp.369-375. doi:10.2519/jospt.2010.3211
Contact information: ustinovfv@yandex.ru
Article arrived in edition 11.11.2019
Show full text